Searching for Cryptography materials

Searching AES keys

radare2 is capable of finding expanded AES keys with /ca command. It searches from current seek position up to the search.distance limit, or until end of file is reached. You can interrupt current search by pressing Ctrl-C. For example, to look for AES keys in a memory dump:

0x00000000]> /ca
Searching 40 bytes in [0x0-0x1ab]
hits: 1
0x000000fb hit0_0 6920e299a5202a6d656e636869746f2a

The output length gives you the size of the AES key used: 128, 192 or 256 bits. If you are simply looking for plaintext AES keys in your binary, /ca will not find them they must have been expanded by the key expansion algorithm.

Searching private keys and certificates

/cr command implements the search of private keys (RSA and ECC). /cd command implements a similar feature to search certificates.

[0x00000000]> /cr
Searching 11 bytes in [0x0-0x15a]
hits: 2
0x000000fa hit1_0 302e020100300506032b657004220420fb3d588296fed5694ff7049eafb74490bf4bc6467ee11a08...

Entropy analysis

p=e might give some hints if high entropy sections are found trying to cover up a hardcoded secret.

There is the possibility to delimit entropy sections for later use with \s command:

[0x00000000]> b
0x100
[0x00000000]> b 4096
[0x00000000]> /s
0x00100000 - 0x00101000 ~ 5.556094
0x014e2c88 - 0x014e3c88 ~ 0.000000
0x01434374 - 0x01435374 ~ 6.332087
0x01435374 - 0x0144c374 ~ 3.664636
0x0144c374 - 0x0144d374 ~ 1.664368
0x0144d374 - 0x0144f374 ~ 4.229199
0x0144f374 - 0x01451374 ~ 2.000000
(...)
[0x00000000]> /s*
f entropy_section_0 0x00001000 0x00100000
f entropy_section_1 0x00001000 0x014e2c88
f entropy_section_2 0x00001000 0x01434374
f entropy_section_3 0x00017000 0x01435374
f entropy_section_4 0x00001000 0x0144c374
f entropy_section_5 0x00002000 0x0144d374
f entropy_section_6 0x00002000 0x0144f374

The blocksize is increased to 4096 bytes from the default 100 bytes so that the entropy search /s can work on reasonably sized chunks for entropy analysis. The sections flags can be applied with the dot operator, ./s* and then looped through px 32 @@ entropy*.